A recent project at Nexor required us to look at the challenges of providing access to the DNS from a secure environment. It reminded me of the issues related to DNS tunnelling.
DNS tunnelling enables a user to run a full TCP/IP stack over the top of the DNS protocol. This is especially useful when a firewall is blocking outbound ports. DNS tunnelling is not new, and surprisingly simple to do. For example, the following DNS query:
Will pass the message ‘secret_data_sent_via_dns’ to the server infoleak.nexor.com (data leaving network). The server might respond:
Response.infoleak.nexor.com. 0 IN TXT ‘Message received – thanks‘
Thus two way data communication has occurred. Once you have two way communication, you can run any communication protocol of your choice, including TCP/IP. Sadly DNS tunnelling means a firewall is now pretty much useless as a tool to control the network traffic that leaves a business. As an attacker, once you have managed to get software to execute on the inside of a firewall, you can use the DNS to set up a communication tunnel to get data out (or more malware in). Is this a problem that concerns your business? If so, contact Nexor to find out how we can help solve the problem.
This article was originally posted on the Cyber Matters blog – which gives “bite-size insight on cyber security for the not too technical”.
Author Bio - Colin Robbins
Colin Robbins is a Principal Security Consultant at Nexor. He is a Fellow of the IISP, and a NCSC certified Security and Information Risk Adviser (Lead CCP). He has specific technical experience in Secure Information Exchange & Identity Systems and is credited as the co-inventor of LDAP. He also has a strong interest in security governance, being a qualified ISO 27001 auditor.
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